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Designing Apache Hudi for Incremental Processing

« Current 2022

Back in 2016, Apache Hudi brought transactions, change capture on top of data lakes, what is today referred to as the Lakehouse architecture. In this session, we first introduce Apache Hudi and the key technology gaps it fills in the modern data architecture. Bridging traditional data lakes and warehouses, Hudi helps realize the Lakehouse vision, by bringing transactions, optimized table metadata to data lakes and powerful storage layout optimizations, moving them closer to cloud warehouses of today. Viewed from a data engineering lens, Hudi also plays a key unifying role between the batch and stream processing worlds, by acting as a columnar, server-less ""state store"" for batch jobs, ushering in what we call the incremental processing model, where batch jobs can consume new data, update/delete intermediate results in a Hudi table, instead of re-computing/re-write entire output like old-school big batch jobs.

Rest of talk focusses on a deep dive into the some of the time-tested design choices and tradeoffs in Hudi, that helps power some of the largest transactional data lakes on the planet today. We will start by describing a tour of the storage format design, including data, metadata layouts and of course Hudi's timeline, an event log that is central to implementing ACID transactions and concurrency control. We will delve deeper into the practical concurrency control pitfalls in data lakes, and show how Hudi's hybrid approach combining MVCC with optimistic concurrency control, lowers contention and unlocks minute-level near real-time commits to Hudi tables. We will conclude with code examples that showcase Hudi's rich set of table services that perform vital table management such as cleaning older file versions, compaction of delta logs into base files, dynamic re-clustering for faster query performance, or the more recently introduced indexing service that maintains Hudi's multi-modal indexing capabilities.

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